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  • 20 Facts about the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

    Ethiopia is building one of the largest dams in the world, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) formerly known as Millennium Dam and sometimes referred to as Hidase Dam, on the River Nile near the Sudan border. Let's see some of the major facts about the Dam.

    1-Location: The dam is being built on the Blue Nile River in North western Ethiopia, a few Kilometers from the Ethio– Sudan common border, in Benishangul/Gumuz Regional State, Metekel zone, Buamza Kebele, between Lebeyate and Negro mountains. The project is located approximately 500 km north west of the capital Addis Ababa

    2-Area Coverage-The dam will flood 1,680 square kilometers of forest in northwest Ethiopia.

    3-Reservoir Size: Holds about 74 bn cubic meters of water.

    4-Projected Capacity-The project’s projected electricity capacity  more than  6,000MW and when completed it will have an estimated production of 15,000 GWh per year.

    5-Dam size: 145m high and 1,708m long 

    6-Dam Cost: US$4.8bn (equal to about 15% of Ethiopia’s GDP in 2012, and about 60% of the annual budget). 

    7-Site Identification-The eventual site for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam was identified by the United States Bureau of Reclamation during a Blue Nile survey conducted between 1956 and 1964.

    8-Site Survey-The Ethiopian Government surveyed the site in October 2009 and August 2010. In November 2010, a design for the dam was submitted.

    9-Publicity-On 31 March 2011, a day after the project was made public, a US$4.8 billion contract was awarded without competitive bidding to Salini Costruttori and the dam's foundation stone was laid on 02 April 2011 by the late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi.

    10-Initial Name-The dam was originally called "Project X", and after its contract was announced it was called the Millennium Dam.

    11- Renaming-On 15 April 2011, the Council of Ministers renamed it Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.

    12-Fund Source-The dam is being funded by government bonds and private donations.

    13-Contractors-The main contractor is the Italian company Salini Costruttori,and other local contractors.

    14-Benefits-A major benefit of the dam will be hydropower production. The electricity to be produced by the hydropower plant is to be sold in Ethiopia and to neighboring countries including Sudan and possibly Egypt.

    15-Job Opportunities-It is expected to create up to 12,000 jobs. 

    16-Resettlement-Approximately 20,000 people will be resettled during the course of the project.

    17-Flood Handling-The dam will be capable of handling a flood of 19,370 cubic metres per second, will reduce alluvium in Sudan by 100 million cubic metres and also facilitate irrigation of around 500,000ha of new agricultural lands.

    18-Total Turbines- The total installed capacity of the dam will accommodate 16 turbines 375 MW installed capacity. 10 turbines will be on the left bank, while another 6 turbines on the right bank.

    19-Upgrading- On March 27, 2012, the Ethiopian government announced a revision of the design to the power plant's design, increasing it from 5,250 MW to 6,000 MW.  

    20-Rank-At 6,000 MW, the dam will be the largest hydroelectric power plant in Africa  and the 11th largest in the world when completed.

    Sources: internationalrivers.org , en.wikipedia.org ,ibtimes.co.ukwater-technology.netsalini-impregilo.com and hornaffairs.com

     

     

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  • 18 Effective Habits to develop and become a Highly Successful Person

    Whether we like it or not, a big part of what we do in life is governed by habits. Even more importantly, habits can lead us to think and feel in certain patterns.

    Since habits are so powerful, it's worth paying attention to the ones that are most effective.

    Here are 18 effective habits of successful people, learn them, implement them and make them your own.

    1. Successful people are persistent.

    They know nothing can take the place of persistence and determination, so they make a habit of never quitting until they get results.

    2. Successful people are self-confident.

    Self-confidence comes from the habit of mastering yourself, your skills and talents. It's a process that slowly but surely builds unshakeable trust in yourself--which is a vital element of success.

    3. Successful people think big.

    When you think big, you act big, and big things happen. What is the next big idea, project, business that you can think about?

    4. Successful people have an unswerving commitment.

    Their strong convictions mean they'll structure everything else in their life around their most important goal, doing whatever it takes to make it happen.

    5. Successful people contribute generously.

    Successful people make it a habit to bring value to others. To become successful, look for ways to give, not to get.

    6. Successful people have tremendous willpower.

    They have the strength to see things through without vacillating or procrastinating. When you want it, you make it happen. The world's greatest achievers are those who have had the willpower to stay focused on their goals and consistent in their efforts.

    7. Successful people have patience.

    They understand that in everything there are failures and frustrations. To take setbacks personally just slows things down that much more. Their habit of patience is not so much about the ability to wait as knowing how to act while they're waiting.

    8. Successful people are optimistic.

    They choose positivity instead of fear. Optimism is an ideal strategy for making a better future--you have to first believe that the future can be better before you can step up and take responsibility for making it so.

    9. Successful people are flexible.

    They make it a habit of being agile and adaptable. Many of them have become successful doing something different from what they initially started out to do. They know the world is always changing and they refuse to lock themselves into a box.

    10. Successful people know their "why."

    Successful people make a habit of knowing why they do what they do--what they're in it for. They've given thought to their reasons and motives, which in turn gives them the courage and the determination to continue.

    11. Successful people think long term.

    Most people think short term, because they want instant gratification. Successful people know how to set that desire aside and cultivate the habit of thinking in the long term. They plan ahead because they know that lasting success beats momentary gratification.

    12. Successful people are strong communicators.

    People who can communicate effectively excel in life. Successful people understand that in order to achieve great success, you must first must understand your central message and how best to communicate it.

    13. Successful people take risks.

    They know you can't make important gains without important risk. If you take risk out of life, you take opportunity out along with it.

    14. Successful people have self-management skills.

    In the end, everything boils down to personal relationships and self-management. Successful people make those areas a priority--people skills and personal development.

    15. Successful people are resourceful.

    They develop networks and cultivate contacts, and they know how to make things work. They know when you have the right people with the right abilities in the right place at the right time, everyone benefits.

    16.Successful people take definitive actions.

    If there's one critical thing that separates successful people from the herd, it's this: successful people take action. They don't talk about what they're going to do or think about their intentions. They get up and get it done.

    17. Successful people play by their own rules.

    They make a point of working harder than everyone else and learning every single detail from scratch. And because they do what most people aren't willing to do, they get to set the agenda.

    18. Successful people think winning thoughts.

    They don't allow any room for negativity or doubt. They may even visualize how success will look and feel. They intuitively understand that once you can think it you can achieve it.

    In the end, successful people know the importance of having effective, healthy winning habits, and they work hard on creating, building and cultivating winning habits to make their success a reality.

    Source: inc.com

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  • 20 Tips to have an Amazing Sleep

    1. Take a warm bath before bedtime.
    2. Don’t drink alcohol at night.
    3. Keep your bedroom a cool 60 to 67 degrees F.
    4. Take afternoon naps under 20 minutes.
    5. Keep a regular bedtime and wake-up schedule.
    6. Nix caffeine after noon.
    7. Keep your television out of your bedroom.
    8. Turn off the TV at least an hour before bedtime.
    9. Avoid harsh light.
    10. Don’t use your bed for anything other than sleep and sex.
    11. Kick your pets and children out of your bed.
    12. Dim your home’s lights about 3 hours before bedtime.
    13. Get up and read if you can’t fall asleep after 15 minutes in bed.
    14. Exercise daily, but finish well before bedtime.
    15. Eat foods with tryptophan- like beans, peanut butter and nuts- about 2-3 hours before bedtime.
    16. Lay off the late-night heavy meals.
    17. Block out the led lights from electronics in your bedroom.
    18. Use low lights for nighttime reading.
    19. Do exercises to reduce stress for a surge of restful feeling.
    20. Try a few simple yoga stretches just before bedtime.

    Source: lifehack.org

     

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